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CAUSES OF HARPPAN CIVILIZATION END

QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

Types of Paliya

Types of Paliya:

 

1.      Khambhi: A memorial to a dead person built without any carvings.

 

2.      Thesa: Small stones near Paliya.

 

3.      Chagio: Heaps of stones.

 

4.      Surapura: Warriors who fight for the lives of others.

 

5.      Surdhan: Accidental death, which is classified as built in loving memory of murder, suicide, accident, some of them are called Satimata or Zuzar brainless warriors.

 

6.      Paliyas of warriors: These types of monuments are the most common, mostly associated with communities and tribes worshiping war heroes. They are found in large numbers in a limited area and are known as desert khambi. It is built on the battlefield or where the warrior died. Initially, it was built to honor for feasts, community, women, or livestock, and later became a war-related tradition things .

 

7.      These monuments often depict warriors with weapons such as swords, maces, bows and arrows and even guns in the afternoons. These warriors are on various transports such as horses, camels, elephants and chariots. Sometimes it's with the infantry. Sometimes people carrying political symbols or playing drums in battle are also featured.

 

8.      Examples of these monuments are the palias of Bhuchar Mori and the paliyas of Hamirji Gohil and others near the Somnath temple.

 

9.      Patiyas of Sati: These monuments are mostly associated with royal families who are dedicated to women who have been sati or have died in Jauhar. It may also be related to folklore and is worshiped as their goddess.

 

10.   These monuments are mostly on the right hand side, bending at an angle of 8 or 20 degrees. Th showing. Sometimes there are hands and other symbols like peacock and lotus on this palia. Some paliyas have the figure of a perfect woman standing in a blessing or salutation posture. Some monuments have the shape of a woman with a mandala in one hand and a rosary in the other. Some of the monuments also feature figures of a woman entering the flames and her husband's body lying on the ground.

 

11.   For Examples all of these monuments include the Paliya of Suraj Kunwarba of Bhuchar Mori. Nana is also found in the state of Sindh and the Indian state of Rajasthan.

 

12.   Sailors' Paliya: Gujarat has a long maritime history. These monuments are reminiscent of sailors who died during their voyage. Ships are sometimes depicted on their monuments.

 

13.   Paliya of Folklore: Many monuments depict the sacrifices made for religious saints-devotees associated with folklore, love stories, sacrifices, friendship, protest, etc. The example of this monument is the Paliya of Veer Mangada at Bhutwad near Bhanvad.

 

14.   Paliya of animals: Animals such asPalisades depicting camels and camels were also built.

 

15.   Kshetrapalana Paliya: This Paliya is dedicated to Kshetrapala (protecting the field), who is the god of the land. This is not a monument but has an almost identical effect. They are usually placed near the farm or outside the village. In some communities, ancestors are worshiped as field keepers. It is believed to protect the soil and crops. Snakes or sometimes just eyes are symbolized on this paliya.

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