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CAUSES OF HARPPAN CIVILIZATION END

QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

Paleolithic Period-

According to Indian archeology, India became suitable for human habitation about 500,000 years ago. Humans living during this time were satisfied with their basic or complete needs with the help of stone. Hence this time is known as the Stone Age. According to the fossils found so far, the period from 5 lakh BC to 2500 BC is known as the Stone Age. This Stone Age is divided into three parts by scholars.

1. Ancient Stone Age- UPPER STONE AGE
2. MIDDLE STONE AGE
3. New Stone Age - LOWER STONE AGE

Ancient Paleolithic: -
The Paleolithic period is estimated to have been between 30,000,000 BC and 10,000 BC.
The discovery of the Paleolithic in India is credited to the Englishman Robert Bruce Foote in 1851. He is also known as the father of the ancient Paleolithic of India.
The ancient Paleolithic is divided into three sections. Early, Middle and New Stone Age
At this time man was only hunting and getting food. No remnants of agriculture are available.
The man of this time was of the Negreto Species. And also did painting. Whose remains are found in caves.
Fire was invented by a man of this age between 200,000 BC and 100,000 BC so that he ate cooked meat.
During this time man used animal skins and tree bark as clothing.
The man of this age lived in a cave. Bhimbetka caves in Madhya Pradesh as a relic of which are also found in the paintings of that time. And the Cornwall Cave in South India is an example.
The man of this time used to hunt using stones found in different parts of India such as Pune-Nashik, Hunsgi-Karnataka and Kurnool in Andhra Pradesh.
Due to heavy rainfall and river banks, the climate here was very humid. Remains of rhinos and wild oxen have also been found.

 Middle Stone Age: -
The Middle Paleolithic is believed to date from 9000 BC to 4000 BC.
John Evans is credited with discovering the Middle Stone Age in India. He excavated in Sindh in 1866 and found the remains of the Middle Ages.
The man of this time also lived in caves and hunted. He also started animal husbandry during this time.
As a pastoralist, he raised dogs, sheep, goats, cows, oxen, buffaloes and horses. The dog was first domesticated by humans.
The man of the time was ceremoniously burying the dead. Which was not previously seen in the Paleolithic. At this time an ax and food were placed with the corpses whose remains were found at the Adamgarh site. From this it can be said that they believed in the doctrine of reincarnation.
Human skeletons have been found in the Middle Stone Age but only human skulls were found in Hathnora province of Madhya Pradesh in India.
During this time man was engaged in farming, hunting, animal husbandry and combining honey.
Remains of the Middle Stone Age have been found in West, Central India and Mysore in India.

New Stone Age: -
The Neolithic Age is believed to date from 4000 BC to 2500 BC.
The New Stone Age discoveries in India are credited to Dr. Goes to Primrose. He excavated the site at Lingesar in Karnataka in 1842 and found the remains.
It was at this time that man realized that vegetation was growing from seed, so he started sowing seeds. He also set up an irrigation system.
He also learned to grow grain, to bake it, and to harvest it. And also began to build grain stores.
The oldest agricultural remains are found at Mahergarh in the Bloch region of Pakistan. Remains of the first cotton cloth are also found there.
The Neolithic man farmed and raised animals.
Neolithic agricultural remnants Mahergarh in Pakistan, Burjhom and Gufkaral in Kashmir, Koldihwa and Mahagarh in Uttar Pradesh, Chirand in Bihar, Bellur and Paiyampalli in Andhra Pradesh
The wheel was invented by man around 4000 BC to give impetus to pottery.
They also painted and painted their own utensils and made them attractive.
In the Neolithic Age, along with man farming, he also started living in huts. Whose remains are found from Mahergarh.
In Burjhom in Kashmir, construction was started by making a pit which is known as Gartwas.
The tribe evolved from a group of families. Due to which the work is classified according to age, intelligence and ability.
Language, painting and music developed which led to the development of culture.
During this time people began to worship the sun, water, sky, earth, cows and snakes.
Bodies were now buried in two forms, burial and cremation. Burial remains of pets have been found in the Gufkaral region of Kashmir.   

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