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CAUSES OF HARPPAN CIVILIZATION END

QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

Vedic Age-

Arrival of Aryans: - (Aryan people)

BC In 1750, when the Harappan civilization came to an end, B.C. The period up to 1500 is known as the Dark Ages. No information is available about what happened in India during this period. Then B.C. The Aryans arrived in India in 1500 AD.
So that B.C. 1500 BC The time up to 600 is considered the time of Vedic civilization.
BC The Rig Veda was composed between 1500 BC and 1000 BC so that this time can be traced back to the Vedic period and then to BC. 1000 BC Up to 600 other 3 new Vedas which were Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda were created so that this time is known from Anu-Vedic period.
It is not known where Arya originally came from. But according to the Archaeological Department, they lived in the plains of Eurasia. Aryan utensils were found during the search. Tevaj utensils were also found in the plains of Stapes and the duration of the two was almost the same. But there is also a difference of opinion about the migration of Aryans.
While the Aryans came to India from the North Pole according to the folk tilak.
According to Dayanand Saraswati, the Aryans came to India from Tibet.
According to the German historian Maxmller, the Aryans came to India from Central Asia.
According to archeological evidence, the main occupation of the Aryans was animal husbandry. Steppe's plain where abundant grass grows. There they raised livestock. At one time there was a migration by the Aryans due to scarcity of fodder. And BC. Around 1500, the Hindu Kush crossed the Khyber Pass, crossed the Khyber Pass and landed in the Sapt Indus region.
They brought with them cows, horses, weapons and chariots which were chariots with saws. While in Harappan civilization, chariots with saws were not seen.
They spoke the Indo-European language, which is believed to have given birth to Greek and Latin.
The Aryans were of white descent. While the Harappan civilization which was known as Anarya was of dark color.
According to one estimate, a war broke out between the Aryans and the Anaryas in which the Aryans were victorious and drove the Anaryas out of the region, so the Anaryas migrated to South India.
 
Rigveda :-( rigveda)

Veda means "Vid" which basically means "to know". The Vedas are composed by the gods. So that it is called "inhuman" or "inhuman". The Vedas were compiled by Vyasamuni. That is why they are called Veda Vyas.
The script of the Vedas is Devanagari and the language is Sanskrit.
The Rig Veda is written entirely in verse. It describes 10 chapters and 1028 suktas 10462 richas.
The first chapter of the Rig Veda deals with the "hymns of the gods."
Chapter 3 of the Rig Veda describes the Gayatri Mantra. Gayatri Mantra composed by Vishwamitra Muni.
Chapters 2 to 7 are called Gotra Mandal. Which is the oldest chapter of the Rig Veda.
The deities are mentioned in the 8th mandala.
The 9th chapter is known as Som-mandal which mentions a deity named Som.
The 10th Mandal mentions caste system. (Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra)
Chapter 7 of the Rig Veda describes the Dasaraja battle of 10 kings. In which Sudas who was the commander of Bharat Raja defeated the king of the entire caste and ten other Rajas. The battle was fought on the banks of the river Ravi. This war was caused by a dispute between Vashishta (Guru of Sudas) and Vishwamitra (Guru of the opposing group). It is believed that Bharatvarsha, the country of India, was created when Bharat Raja was victorious.
The Saptasindhu region is mentioned in the Rig Veda. And the abode of the Aryans is also shown. And the main river was the Saraswati.
In the Rig Veda, the word "Arya" is described 36 times, the word "Jana" 170 times, besides 250 verses for Indra and 200 verses for Agni Dev.
The Rig Veda does not mention widow marriage, Diyarvatu and child marriage. Age for marriage is shown as 16 or 17 years. The Rig Veda also mentions that many women remained virgins all their lives who were known as "Amaju".
The Rig Veda mentions a total of 24 rivers, of which the Saraswati is frequently mentioned, while the Ganges is mentioned once and the Yamuna three times. The Indus River is the most frequently mentioned.
 
Rigvedic society: -

The parent minister was society.
The condition of the women was very respectable. There was the practice of a wife. Marriages of women were performed in adulthood.
Women could participate in political affairs, in education, and they had every right to freedom.
The family lived in a group. And it was called descent.
No mention is made of the race system. But the caste system was determined on the basis of karma i.e. any person can do any task.
The king existed. Which was known as the "kingdom". The king was elected by election.
There were two political bodies called Sabha and Samiti. The assembly is mentioned 8 times in the Rig Veda. In which the elders sit and give justice while the committee is mentioned 9 times in the Rig Veda which included persons from all classes.
The name "Vidith" refers to an institution which was the oldest. It is mentioned 122 times in the Rig Veda.
It was the priest's job to advise the king while the general was helping with the day-to-day work. The king was given a voluntary tax called "sacrifice".
The head of the family was called "Kulpati" and the head of the village was called "Gramini".
The Rig Veda mentions a total of 33 gods and goddesses, including the goddesses Usha, Aditi and Surya.
The deities include Indra, Varuna, Agni, Som, Yama and Pushan.
The chief deity was Indra who is also called "Purandar". Considered the god of war and rain. Agni was called the mediator between the deity and human beings, Pushan was considered the deity of pastoralists. While Mon was considered the god of plants. Som was a type of plant whose juice was drunk by the Aryans also known as Somras.
The Aryans had a habit of drinking somersaults and gambling.
Small yagnas were performed while sitting at home.
Donation of cow was considered as Mahadan. The cow was known as "Komda". And the man with the most cows was known as "Gaumat". There were mainly battles for cows. This war was known as "research".
The main occupation was animal husbandry in which cows, horses, goats and sheep were reared. Barley was used in food. He also knew metalworking, carpentry and weaving.
The Aryans played music, chariot races, horse races, and gambling for entertainment.
The practice of barter existed. People lived in paki brick houses.
 
Post-Vedic Period: -

The other three Vedas are believed to have been composed during the Anu-Vedic period. These are samveda, yajurveda and atharvaveda respectively.
The Samaveda is the smallest scripture in the form of the four Vedas. There are 1876 mantras out of which all the 61 mantras are taken from Rigveda. And 17 mantras are taken from Yajurveda and Atharvaveda.
The Yajurveda contains a total of 663 verses and 3188 richas. And the Rig Veda is mainly written in prose. Just as the mantras of the Rig Veda are known as Rucha, so are the mantras of the Yajurveda known as "Yajushi". The Rig Veda describes Agnihotra, Ashwamegh, Bajpayee, Som and Rajsui Yajnas.
The Atharva Veda is believed to have about 6000 heights. In which medical practices, astronomy, geography, magic and charm are given.
Apart from this, Brahmanical texts, Aranyakas, Upanishads and Shaddarshan also came into existence.
The discovery of iron in this era gave much impetus to agriculture. The race system became tight.
The importance of large yagnas increased, mainly for the attainment of a son. Apart from this, descriptions of Rajsui and Ashwamegh Yajna are also found.
The king's election was now closed and the king's position was inherited.
The status of women was respectable but the practice of polygamy began.
The importance of land had now increased in place of cows.
The beginning of the second urbanization is considered to be the beginning of the creation of the district.
 
Brahmanical texts: -

The texts that have been created for the interpretation of the richas in the Vedas, for the understanding of words and for their conduct are called Brahmanical texts.
These texts are written in prose. Different Brahmins gave different explanations for each Veda.
Rig Veda: - Athriya Brahman
Yajurveda: - Satpath and Tetriya Brahman
Satpath Brahman = Shukla Yajurveda Tetriya Brahman = Krishna Yajurveda
Samveda: - There was a group of 8 different Brahmins
Atharveda: - Gopath Brahman
 
Aranyakas :-( aaranyka)

As the four characters are mentioned in the Vedic civilization, the four stages of life are also described in addition to the four purushartha dharma, artha, kama and moksha.
 The period of 0-25 years is considered as Brahmacharyashram in which the period of completion of studies from childhood is considered.
Grihasthashram at the age of 25-50 years in which a person will work for a living after completing his studies and start a marriage.
At the age of 50-75 years, the Vanprasthashram person will give the responsibility of his house to his descendants and will go to the forest and do penance. Going to the forest was not mandatory
Sannyasashram is a period of 75-100 years in which a person leaves the world.
In the Vanprasthashram stage of life, when one goes to the forest, the penance that is done and the element of contemplation received from it and the scriptures that came from it are called Aranyakas.
Aranyakoma is Thai in terms of element meditation, simple sacrificial rituals, and lifestyle information.
 
Upanishads-Vedanta :-( Upanishads-Vedanta)

In Upanishads, Up means "near" and Nishad means "sitting" in Thai. That is, one who sits with the Guru and acquires knowledge.
The total number of Upanishads is 108. There are 10 Upanishads of Rigveda, 51 Upanishads of Yajurveda, 16 Upanishads of Samaveda and 31 Upanishads of Atharvaveda.
The number of important Upanishads is 11. Adi Shankaracharya has commented on all the 10 Upanishads except Narasimha Purvatap.
1.       Eshop
2.       Taitariya
3.       Canopy
4.       Narasimha Purvatap
5.       prashnop
6.       Chhandogya
7.       Mundak
8.       Brihadaranya
9.       Madunkya
10.   Aitriya
11.   kanthop
 Aitariya, Taitariya, Brihadaranya and Chhandogya are written in prose form.
While Kanopanishad, Ishop and Kanthop are written in verse. The Upanishads contain spiritual knowledge and ideas. The motto "Satyamev Jayate" has been taken from Mundak Upanishad.
 
Shaddarshan :-( shad darshana)

In Shaddarshan, the word darshan is derived from the metal "kush". Meaning "to see" or "to see"
Conspiracy was created for the purpose of liberation from the cycle of birth and death
Indian culture is seen in Shaddarshan.

Order

Darshan

Composer

Ideology

1

Samkhya

Kapil

Creation by man and nature

2

Yoga

 

Patanjali

 

The practical way to achieve the truth

 

3

Justice

 

Gautam

 

Remedies for real enlightenment

 

4

Vaisheshik

Kanad

Introduction to the form of material creation

 

5

East Mimasha

 

Jamini

 

The principle of karma and rebirth

 

6

North Mimasha

 

Badrayan

 

Jiva, Jagat, and Ishwar are Brahman.

 

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