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CAUSES OF HARPPAN CIVILIZATION END

QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

Mauryan Empire Part-3

In the next part, we got his basic information about Chandragupta Morya, the king of the Morya kingdom, in which we got an idea about his rise. In today's part, we will discuss Chandragupta Morya again and get more information about him. Talking about the birth of Chandragupta at the end of the last part, we will start with his ascension to the throne.
 
It seems that Chandragupta has been prepared by Chanakya against Dhanananda, but it is impossible to win the war without an army and even in this a skilled army is needed to fight the war with Dhanananda. So initially Chandragupta prepared an army of warlike classes like Atvik (forest dwellers), Shastrajivi, Chorluntara and Malechch and attacked Magadha but could not withstand the mighty army of Nanda. So Chandragupta realized that the frontier states would have to be the first to rule that victory would not be achieved by directly attacking the center.
 
As a result, Chandragupta went on to conquer the border states one after another. In addition, the mighty king of one of the regions of the Himalayas befriended the mountain and invaded Magadha with him. Dhanananda escaped from there due to a fierce attack, but Nandan's general Rakshasa went out of town and started conspiring in which Raja Parvatak fell victim to him. Thus the whole of Magadha came under the control of Chandragupta and the Nanda dynasty came to an end on Magadha forever. According to Buddhist legends, this whole event took place in AD. Became around 322 BC.
 
Dhananda escaped from the invasion of Magadha but his daughter Durdhara came under the control of Chandragupta and Chandragupta married her (history does not accept the truth of this incident) and gave her the status of chief queen. In addition, Chandragupta will now build a series of victories over North, West and South India. Chandragupta occupied all of India except the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and the North-East according to today's territories.
 
305 BC becomes an important event in the life of Chandragupta. According to the Greek scripture Epiphon, Alexander's general Seleucus Niceter invaded Chandragupta earlier this year. So the question is, who is this Seleucus Nicator? So when Alexander returned from India, he appointed his generals over the conquered territories. And it is common knowledge that Alexander was unable to return home alive. In time, these generals became independent. The reason for Niketar's attack on Chandragupta was that Alexander the Great's dream of conquering Magadha could be fulfilled and the reason behind this idea was also common. If the powerful Nanda dynasty can be removed from the throne by such a small Morya dynasty, then we will be able to defeat the Morya dynasty and conquer Magadha. With this idea he attacked Chandragupta but the result was the opposite. Chandragupta was victorious in this battle.
 
After the defeat of Niketar, he was released alive and Chandragupta made a treaty with him. According to the treaty, Gandhar, Hairat and Makran were given to Chandragupta, a large province under Niketar's control, and his daughter Helena was married to Chandragupta. After accepting the treaty, Chandragupta gifted 500 elephants to Niketar. Many true historians write that giving 60,000 gifts is an exaggerated description. With this treaty the Greek ambassador Megasthenes took place at the court of Chandragupta.
 
This is the same Chandragupta who called the first general assembly of Jainism. Under the resolution of the differences between Sthulibahu and Bhadrabahu but the differences were not removed. Oral composition of 12 arrivals. Surprisingly, the meeting was moderated by Sthulibahu, who belonged to the Shwetambar sect of Jainism. However, Chandragupta was a follower of Bhadrabahu and followed the Digambar sect of Jainism.
 
Chandragupta built a road for the development of trade and commerce, known as the Grand Trunk Road, which was repaired by Sher Shah Suri, hence the name Sher Shah Suri Marg or NH-1.
 
At the age of about 45, Chandragupta went with Bhadrabahu to Shravanabelagoda where he abandoned his body in the hills of Chandragiri using Santhara. In the Santhara experiment, a person gives up food and water and eventually dies of starvation. Under Indian law, it is a crime to use santhara. In Jainism this experiment is only allowed to be done by a very old person and a person suffering from an incurable disease.
 
Thus ends the founder of the Morya dynasty and a great king. Thus we may call Chandragupta the creator of a united India. The throne then goes to his skilled and worthy son Bindusara.  

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