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CAUSES OF HARPPAN CIVILIZATION END

QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

Mauryan Empire Part-5

In Part-4 of the Mauryan Empire, King Bindusara spoke and in the end he knew that his son Ashoka would prove to be a suitable king, so he declared him king. So starting from here is the majestic king of India whose description of praise has been heard in India for centuries and there is ample evidence of it.

Ashok's mother's name was Shubhadrangi. He was named Ashoka. According to Shubhadrangi, he was freed from mourning since the birth of Ashoka, so his son was named Ashoka (mourning free). If the validity of this story is checked, there is no mention of Ashoka's name anywhere in all the evidences found during Ashoka's reign. Evidence of this is found written by Priyadarshan, Devanampriya and Chand Ashoka. Only Gurjara and Maski's records contain a description of the name Ashoka. His real name Priyadarshan has been shown in history. Devanampriya was considered to be the favorite king of the gods and Chand Ashoka was named because of his ferocity.
Ashok spent most of his childhood with his mother. Ashoka's mother was a humble, polite and non-violent believer. So all these qualities were also given to Ashoka. But in the throes of politics and the throne it became enormously fierce.
 
Is. 273 BC Ashoka was declared Yuvraj. And completely King E.S. Made in 269 BC. Now the question is why the time between these four years? So here are the same Buddhist legends in which it is written that when Ashoka was declared Yuvraj, he had an internal protest which was done by his own brothers, so Ashoka removed his brothers, that is, killed them and got the throne. According to legend, Ashoka killed 99 of his brothers. So again the question is did Bindusara have 100 sons? Ashoka's prime minister at the time was Radhagupta. Who was also a disciple of Chanakya. It is believed that Ashoka killed his brothers at the behest of Radhagupta.
 
 Ashoka ascended the throne completely in 269 BC and was crowned this year. Eight years after the coronation will become an important event in Ashoka's life. This event is the Battle of Kalinga. Is. In 261 BC, Ashoka invaded Kalinga. The motive for the attack is still unknown. This war may have resulted in the rejection of Magadha's subjugation by the Anushars Kalinga. In this battle, Ashoka invaded Kalinga, captured 150,000 people and killed about 100,000. The captives were brought to Magadha and enslaved. Moreover, the bloodshed that took place in this war changed Ashoka's heart. Therefore, he adopted the policy of war and religion. It is said that Dhamma became Ashoka from Chand Ashoka.
 
Ashoka was initially a Shaivite. But after the battle of Kalinga, his heart changed and he converted to Buddhism. This Buddhism was adopted by a monk named Upagupta. (It is believed that Upagupta was the son of Sushim) Now that Ashoka has abandoned the policy of war and adopted the policy of religion, he will undertake efforts for the propagation of this religion, the most important of which will be his 14 inscriptions. These 14 inscriptions were established in the whole of India.
 
These inscriptions are from all over India including 11 inscriptions in India which are written in Brahmi script. 2 Inscriptions in Pakistan which are written in Kharoshthi script. And 1 is located in Afghanistan which is written in Greek and Armid script. All these inscriptions were discovered by an English official, James Trond. And in the year 1837, the inscriptions of Brahmi script in India were solved by the English officer James Prinsep. And the inscription of the Kharoshthi script in Pakistan is solved by James Trond.
 
Topics of 14 inscriptions of Ashoka: -

Inscription-1: - Animal sacrifice has been banned.
Inscription-2: - Social welfare and human and veterinary medicine are described.
Inscription-3: - Regional, Rajuk and Yukto were sent to different places every 5 years for the purpose of propagating the religion. In addition, saving, religious rules and less waste are the same as following religion.
Inscription-4: - Leaving the policies of war, Ashoka adopted the policy of religion.
Inscription-5: - Dharma Mahamatras were appointed. (Women were also appointed as Dharma Mahamatra.
Inscription-6: - Information about self control is given.
Inscriptions-7 and 8: - Information has been given about the pilgrimage made by Ashoka. The inscription 7 is the longest in the text.
Inscription-9: - Information about etiquette has been given.
Inscription-10: - To think that kings and officials do not always do public welfare.
Inscription-11: - Religion has been defined.
Inscription-12: - Religious Tolerance and Appointment of Female Mahamatra.
Inscription-13: - The battle of Kalinga is described. Also, information about Ashok's change of heart is found.
Inscription-14: - Inspires people to live a religious life.
 
Important Inscriptions of Ashoka: -

Dholi is located in the entire district of Orissa
Shahbaz Gadhi - Peshawar, Pakistan
Mansehra - In the Hazara district of Pakistan
Kalsi- In Dehradun district of Uttarakhand
Zogarh- In Zogarh district of Orissa
 Sopara- Palghar in Maharashtra
 Eragudi- In Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh
 Girnar - In Junagadh district of Gujarat  

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