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QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT

QUESTION:-  Write an essay on the Quit India Movement.                                                                                        Or   What were the reasons for starting the Quit India Movement? Describe the progress, programmers and achievements of the movement.                                                                      Or Explain in detail the Quit India movement of 1942 and give it importance in India's freedom movement.                                                                      Or   Describe the circumstances of the Quit India Movement (1942) and explain the reasons for its failure. The failure of the Cripps mission caused a lot of disappointment among Indians. So Gandhiji started thinking seriously about the problems of the country. He concludedthat the real solution to Indian problems could be only when the British left India. He wrote in his newspaper Harijan that the British Government had been warned. "Leave India in god's trust.

Hindu Temple Architechural

                                       Temple Architecture-1

 

The special significance of temples in Hinduism is that the center of faith performs the same function. In Hinduism, a temple is a place of worship for a deity. In one part of the temple, an idol of the deity is kept and worshiped. The temple literally means "home." It can also be called the house of God. If we talk about temples in India, Vishnu, Shiva, Ganesha, Adyashakti and Surya are the five gods whose temples can be found in any corner of India. There is almost no village in India where there is not a single temple of this Panchdev. Temples in Hinduism are rich in sculpture and carvings and in other words, Hinduism and temples have become synonymous.

Now that we are talking about temples, we also need to know about their history. First of all, the question that comes to our mind is when did the construction of temples in India start? Have temples been in India since ancient times? Were the construction of temples in India already the same as today's temples? Etc.

So in response, the actual construction of temples in India began in the Gupta period. This does not mean that temples in India date back to the Gupta period. The civic style of the temple was born in the Gupta period. And the development of these temples reached its zenith in the 7th century. There is also an evolution of the temples we are currently seeing. This means that from the beginning, temples were not of this style or of large construction. The temples have been developed in five stages. Talking about the temples of ancient times, there is no mention of temples in both Harappan civilization and Vedic civilization. The temple is not mentioned anywhere in the holy book Rigveda.

If we discuss the five stages of development of temples.

In the first phase, the temples were built on common ground. Temples were built in the shape of squares which were built on pillars and the roofs of these temples were kept flat and the height of the temple was kept low.

In the second phase, temples began to be built on the platform. As in the first phase, the idol of the deity was kept open on all sides and now it was covered, so the sanctum sanctum was built in the temples. Apart from this, a circumlocution path was also constructed in the temples.

In the third phase, a mountain-like part was built on the sanctum sanctorum. Panchayat style was created in which temples of four other deities were also built along with the main deity. In this style the stage was kept wide and the height of the mountain-like part was kept low.

There was no significant change in the construction style of the temples in the fourth phase. But temples began to be built rectangular.

In the fifth phase, the temples remained rectangular as well as now began to be built in a circular shape.

In the discussion of the above five steps, many genuine words like panchayatan, sanctum sanctorum or the part above the mountain were mentioned which we are unaware of. But it is an integral part of Hindu temples. If we divide the Hindu temple and get information about each part of it.

Sanctuary: - This is the holiest place of the temple, where idols of gods and goddesses are installed.

Mandap: - The entrance of the temple and it is a place of worship.

Peak: - A mountain-like part on the roof of the temple.

Vehicle: - The President is placed in front of the seat of the deity. Such as Nandi placed in Shivalaya.

Mandovar: - The area outside the walls of the sanctum sanctorum.

Circumambulation path: - The path around the sanctum sanctorum in which the devotees are said to circumambulate the idol.

In the above discussion we got information about the development of the temple and its important organs. But many real questions still arise. Like in India there is a lot of difference in the sculpture or construction of temples? Many temples have carvings, but not many? What is the difference between the peaks and the pavilions of many temples?

The answers to the questions here are very simple. This difference seen in Indian temples can be understood according to its styles. The style of Indian temples is divided into three parts.

1. Nagara Style

2. Dravidian style and

3. Besar style.

1. Nagar style: - First of all, this type of temple was built in the town and was named civic style. Also known as Aryavarta style. This style extends from the Himalayas to the Vindhyachal Range. Urban-style temples can be identified by their pinnacles and quadrangular constructions.

Urban style is found as far as the banks of the river Narmada in northern India. But this style is also found across the Narmada river in many areas. The city-style temples are divided into eight parts according to its architecture.

1. Original base: - On which the entire building has been erected.

2. Lentils: - The part between the foundation and the wall

3. Thighs: - The walls of the sanctum sanctorum

4. Peak: - The top part of the temple

5. Dove: - Arch

6. Cervix: - The upper part of the apex

7. Amalak: - The foremost part of the peak but the lower part of the kalash

8. Kalash: - The most front part of the peak

9. Sanctuary: - The part with the original idol.

Urban style temples are always referred to as the temples of North India. And other sub-styles of these temples are also found in North India. There are three sub-genres of urban style. 1. Odisha style 2. Solanki style and 3. Khajuraho style.

2. Dravidian style: - Generally this style is recognized as the style of South India. These temples are also likened to airplanes. Temples of this style are primarily attributed to the Pallava dynasty. But the present i.e. modern Dravidian style temples were built by the Chola dynasty.

Dravidian style temples are built on a square platform. A pyramid-like tower is built on which floors are built in ascending order as it goes up. Each floor is decorated with carvings and is a specialty of the temples of South India.

Also one of the specialties of these temples is that they are kept by its giant, known as Gopuram. The gopuram is also decorated with pyramid-shaped floors and beautiful carvings. In addition, special classes are built for temples in which meditation or other things are kept. In addition, the temples have a reservoir for bathing, which is known as a specialty of these temples.

3. Besar style: - Preserved by the Chalukya dynasty in the seventh century. This style is also called Karnataka style. The mixed style of Nagar and Dravidian style is considered. In this style the plane and the porch of the temple are given more importance. Also the walls are finely carved. The circumnavigation path is kept open. Usually these temples are not built on platforms.

These three styles of temple construction are found mainly in India, but it does not mean that there are no other temple styles in India. Different styles were formed by the local kingdoms during the Rajput period (650-1200) but these styles were largely in line with the Nagar, Dravidian and Besar styles. If we get general information about these styles, Odyssey style by Gangavansh of Kalinga, Solanki style by Solanki dynasty of Gujarat, Palshaili style created by Palvansh of Bengal, Hoysalshaili style created by Hoysalo of Karnataka .

These temples, built around the 3rd century, are still standing tall even after being invaded by many invaders in the 21st century. It is also true that many true temples were destroyed. So many real temples were renovated and rebuilt. The Somnath Temple is a good example of this. Even after being destroyed many times, this temple is still a center of faith in Hinduism.

In this issue of Temple Architecture-1, we will get more information about the architecture of temples.   

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