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CAUSES OF HARPPAN CIVILIZATION END

QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

Mauryan Empire Part-6

Kings of Moryavansh: -

Order

The king

Rule time

1

Chandragupta Morya

321-297 BC

2

Bindusara

297-273 BC

3

Ashok

273-232 BC

4

Kunal

232-224 BC

5

Samprati

224-215 BC

6

Shalishuk

BC 215-202

7

Devvarman

202-195 BC

8

Shatavdhan

195-187 BC

9

Brihadrath

187-185 BC


 
 Mauryan system of governance: -

Order

Ministry

Minister

1

Religion

Dharmamahamatra

2

Agriculture

Sitapat

3

Mahamatra And Amatya

Minister

4

Revenue, justice, and order

Samahrta

5

Iron

Loh adhyaksh

6

Army

Antapal

7

Court

1. Dharma Sthiya:- Diwani Adalat

2. kantak sodhan- Criminal Court

8

Kosha adhyaksh

Sannidhata

9

Vyavharik

Judge

10

Chief of Police

Dandpal

11

Ruler of the capital

Por

12

Nayka

The chief chairman of the town

13

Chairman of the Police Department

Prashastha

14

Guard of the castle

Durgapal

15

Forest Department Officer

Avatik


There were 6 committees of 5 members for administration
There was birth-death, import-export, passport facility.
The final decision was considered by the king.
The provinces of Morya were divided into five parts viz. 1. Takshashila, 2. Avanti, 3. Kalinga, 4. Suvarnagiri and 5. Pataliputra.
It was also the name of the currency of the Mauryan Empire which was a one pona tola silver coin.
In the Mauryan Empire, princes were always made the governors of the provinces.
The official language of the Mauryan Empire was Pali.
The main occupation of the people in the Mauryan Empire was agriculture and the king received a quarter of the revenue.
 
 Moryyugin architecture: -
 
Court Arts: -

Palaces: - The palaces of the Morya era were made of wood. All the palaces were inspired by the Iranian style.

Pillars: - Political sermons and the joy of winning the war were placed. The columns were influenced by the Iranian style. And above it was always placed the mark of the beast.

Stupas: - There were about 84,000 stupas in the time of Ashoka. The uppermost part of the stupa should be covered with an "umbrella", then a "dome", then a circumambulation path and finally a stone fence. The mouth is always to the south. After the death of the Buddha, 9 stupas were built in which his remains were placed in the 8th and his utensils were placed in the 9th stupa.
 
Popular art
 
Caves: - The mountains were carved. Used to accommodate Buddhist and Jain monks. In the Morya era, caves were built with ornaments. In Bihar, Barobar's cave and Nagarjuna's cave

Sculpture: - Statues of Yaksha and Yakshini are mainly found.

Utensils: - Black polished utensils found.   

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