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QUESTION:-  Write an essay on the Quit India Movement.                                                                                        Or   What were the reasons for starting the Quit India Movement? Describe the progress, programmers and achievements of the movement.                                                                      Or Explain in detail the Quit India movement of 1942 and give it importance in India's freedom movement.                                                                      Or   Describe the circumstances of the Quit India Movement (1942) and explain the reasons for its failure. The failure of the Cripps mission caused a lot of disappointment among Indians. So Gandhiji started thinking seriously about the problems of the country. He concludedthat the real solution to Indian problems could be only when the British left India. He wrote in his newspaper Harijan that the British Government had been warned. "Leave India in god's trust.

Post Mauryan Empire

About 500 years after the end of the Morya dynasty on Magadha, the Gupta Empire will rise. During this 500 year period, different dynasties came to rule over different regions of India. Which is mentioned in the history of India as a non-Morya empire. It is natural in the history of India that whenever a major princely state or dynasty perishes on India, India is divided into smaller states. After the Morya dynasty, India will be divided into smaller states until the Gupta Empire comes to power.

After Morya, Shringavansh, Indo-Greek, Shakvansh, Pahlavansh, Satvahanavansh, Chedivansh and Kushanvansh will emerge as important dynasties in India.

Shrunga Dynasty - Brahmin Dynasty: -

The last king of the Morya dynasty came to the throne as Brihadrath. Brihadrath proved to be a weak king as a result of which his general Pushyamitra Sringavansh killed him during a military operation and established the Sringavansh in 185 BC. When Pushyamitra came to power, he retained the rank of Senapati. That is, he never held the title of king during his lifetime. When Pushyamitra came to the throne, his power extended as far as the Punjab.

Among the contemporary kings of Pushyamitra were Dimitro, an Indo-Greek king, and Kharvel, a king of the Chedi dynasty. He defeated both his enemies and held his power firmly. During this time he also performed an Ashwamegh Yajna. But in the inscription found in Ayodhya, it is found that Pushyamitra performed Ashwamegh Yajna twice. He is also mentioned in the inscription as Digvijay. He himself was from a Brahmin clan, and it is common knowledge that Ashoka gave more importance to Buddhism which did not give much importance to the Brahmins due to which the Brahmins were disappointed with Ashoka. If we are talking about Pushyamitra here, then according to the previous story, he was from a Brahmin clan and he also had a feeling of opposition to Buddhism in his mind. Thus, in order to re-establish the Brahmanical doctrine, he had to uproot the sacred pipal tree of Bodhi Gaya.

After Pushyamitra, his son Agnimitra came to the throne. He was first sent to Vidisha to rule. He declared himself king there. Thus Agnimitra is recognized as the first king of the Horn Dynasty. There is no special mention of Agnimitra in history or you can also say that it was made remarkable in history by the great poet Kalidasa. Kalidasa wrote a book "Malvika-Agnimitra" on the love affair between Agnimitra and his wife Malvika. Agnimitra's reign lasted only 8 years, after which his elder brother Jyeshthamitra came to the throne. (His coins have been found in India.) He was followed by Vasumitra, Odrak, Bhagabhadra and the last king Devabhuti who was killed by his general Vasudeva Kanva at the hands of a maid as he was living in the company of women. Thus. The Horn Dynasty lasted from 185 to 73 BC and was ended by the Kanvavansh. There is no specific history of Kanvavansh in the present. According to the stories, Andhra dynasty ended Kanvavansh. It is not known which dynasty came to the throne of Magadha after that. It can also be said that the influence of Magadha state in India is no longer special.

Indo-Greek Dynasty-Bahyik Dynasty -Yavan Dynasty: -

After Alexander's return from India, his grandson, Antioch, proved weak among his successors. Thus the generals of the eastern regions appointed by Alexander began to become independent and a king named Dimitri emerged. Dimitri invaded the western part of India and conquered Gandhara, Panchal, Mathura, Kaushal and Pataliputra. This whole phenomenon is almost. Became around 200 BC, at this time Shalishuk was the king of the Moryavansh. Later, when the horn dynasty came to the throne, it pushed the Indo-Greek dynasty to the Punjab. When Dimitri invaded India, his native state was snatched by his rival in the name of Aukradit. Thus it can be said that Dimitri lost his territory in winning India. Coins were issued by Dimitri with Greek on one side and Kharoshthi script on the other. He also issued coins in Prakrit language to the public.

Minender became the most famous of the Indo-Greek holidays. Minender tried to conquer Pataliputra besides conquering the territories of Mathura but there he was opposed by Pushyamitra. Minender's capital is "Sakal" i.e. present day Sialkot Punjab. Minender became very famous in India and is also known as Milind. Because he was interested in Buddhism, he summoned a monk named Nagsen to his court and learned Buddhism from him and eventually accepted Buddhism. From the dialogue between Milind and Nagsen, a book called "Milindpanho" was written. This book mentions 750 handicrafts and 60 sculptures.

The last king of this dynasty was Hermione. The Indo-Greek dynasty was ended by the Shakvansh.

Shakvansh: -

Coming from Saistan in Central Asia, he conquered the regions of East Punjab, Sindh, Gujarat, Malwa and Mathura.

BC Around 57-58, King Vikram of Ujjain expelled the Saka people from his kingdom and Vikram Savant started from 57 BC. With this feat of Vikram Raja, the title of "Vikramaditya" became a prestige. There were about 14 Vikramadityas in India, including Chandragupta-2 of the Gupta dynasty, who also held the title of Vikramaditya.

The Saka dynasty ruled Gujarat for about 400 years with Chastna and Rudradama being the chief kings. The Shakavans generally functioned under the Kushan dynasty. In the western part of India they were functioning as Kshatraps (subas) of the Kushan dynasty. The Shakavans were ruled by two subas of the clan.

 1. Kshaharat and 2. Kardamaka kshaharat clan became kings in the name of Nahpan and Bhumak who were defeated by Gautamiputra Satkarni.

After the Kshaharat clan, the Kardamak clan was appointed in the western part of India in which a great emperor named Chasthan emerged, took revenge and defeated Gautamiputra Satkarni and conquered Gujarat again. Then came Rudradama, known as Mahakshatrap, who conquered the region of Gujarat, Malwa and the region of Sindh. The broken Sudarshan Lake was repaired by his Suba Shuvisakh. This work cost about one crore rupees. Pleased with this work, an inscription was written there by Rudradama. He added one line to Ashoka's 14-line Junagadh inscription and praised Shuvisakh's work. This 15th line is written in Sanskrit language and Brahmi script. Rudradama was very fond of Sanskrit language so he used Sanskrit language in the inscription. He was also a scholar of Sanskrit language. The kings of the Saka dynasty practiced Shaivism, gave importance to Sanskrit language and issued silver coins in Gujarat.

Pahlav Dynasty: -

There was a dynasty from Central Asia in which the main king was Gondofrnis. Saint Thomas of Christianity came to India in his time.

Chedivansh: -

After Ashoka, the Chedi dynasty came to Kalinga and Kharvel became the great ruler. He built the caves of Udayagiri. According to the inscriptions found in this cave, his kingdom was on Magadha.

Satavahana dynasty: -

Gautamiputra Satkarni was the chief king. His kingdom extended from Godavari river to Kaveri river. Information about Gautamiputra Satkarni is obtained from the inscriptions at Nashik and Nanagadh. The first king of this dynasty was Simuk, followed by Krishna who extended his kingdom to Nashik. The third king of this dynasty was Gautamiputra Satkarni. He conquered Malwa and the surrounding regions and performed an Ashwamegh Yajna. Satkarni ruled for a total of 24 years. And he called himself a Brahmin and gave shelter to the Brahmins. He also sheltered Buddhist monks. Brahmins and Buddhist monks declared it tax free. The kings of this dynasty issued silver coins which were called "Karshapan". He also traded with the Roman Empire. Whose information is found in the book of Ptolemy. "Satsai" was written in Prakrit language by the 17th king of this dynasty "Hal" which has 700 verses.

Kushan Dynasty: -Yuhe-Chi Dynasty: -

The Kushan dynasty is a branch of the Yu-Hen-Chi dynasty in Central Asia. He defeated the Indo-Greeks first and then the Saka. After the first conquest of Gandhara by the founder of this dynasty, Kazula Cadfis, Vimal Cadfis, also known as Cadfis-2, conquered the regions of Mathura. Vimal Kadphis was a great devotee of Shiva. He issued gold coins with the words "God of the whole world" written on them. Invaded and conquered Kashmir, defeating China twice, first defeating "Pancho" and second time "Panyang", the son of Pancho, and occupying their territories. The capital was Peshawar. He built a road from Bengal to Central Asia for the development of trade and commerce. This road is known as the Silk Route. Buddhist monks were sent to Central Asia to propagate the religion. He was in the court which composed the book "Charaksamhita".   


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