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CAUSES OF HARPPAN CIVILIZATION END

QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

Indo-greek kings and gujarat

After Alexander's return from India, his grandson proved to be extremely weak among his heirs. Thus the generals of the eastern regions appointed by Alexander began to become independent and a king named Dimitri emerged.

Dimitre

Dimitri invaded the western part of India and conquered Gandhara, Panchal, Mathura, Kaushal and Pataliputra. This whole phenomenon is almost. Became around 200 BC, at this time Shalishuk was the king of the Moryavansh. Later, when the horn dynasty came to the throne, it pushed the Indo-Greek dynasty to the Punjab. The period of Dimitri BC. 261-246 are considered.

Coins of Indo-Greek king Dimitri

When Dimitri invaded India, his native state was snatched by his rival in the name of Aukradit. Thus it can be said that Dimitri lost his territory in winning India. Coins were issued by Dimitri with Greek inscriptions on one side and Kharoshthi inscriptions on the other. He also issued coins in Prakrit language to the public.

Eukradit

By Eukradit about B.C. Ruled from 165-155. In the meantime, no evidence has been found that Eukradit ruled Gujarat. But its coins have been found from many regions of Saurashtra. Which was known as "obol".

Minender

The most famous of the Indo-Greek kings was Minender. Its period is BC. 165-130 are considered. In addition to Minender winning the territories of Mathura. Minender interacting with Buddha Nagsen He tried to win Pataliputra but was opposed by Pushyamitra. Minander's capital "Sakal" i.e. present day Sialkot Punjab. Minender became very famous in India and is also known as Milind. Because he was interested in Buddhism, he summoned a monk named Nagsen to his court and learned Buddhism from him and eventually accepted Buddhism.

Minender's coin

From the dialogue between Milind and Nagsen, a book called "Milindpanho" was written. This book mentions 750 handicrafts and 60 sculptures. Its coins were minted by Minender which were found in Gujarat from South Gujarat and Saurashtra. Coins minted by Indo-Greek kings were known as "drums".

Minender's silver coin

According to Minender's silver coin, BASILEOS SOTEROS MENANDROU is inscribed in Greek on the front, meaning "King Trata Manendra". On the back of the coin is a figure of the Greek goddess Athena. And all around, in the Kharoshthi script, it is written "Mahrajas Tratras Menandras".

 

Apollodotus- Apaladat

Information is found that Apollodotus may be the son or relative of Minender. Apollodotus coins are found in Bharuch, Gujarat.

Coins of Apollodotus

The coins of Apollodotus are exactly like the coins of Minender. BASILEOS SOTEROS APOLLODOTOU on the front and back of the Greek language in its Prakrit language Mahrajas Rajtirjas Apaldatas on its coins The last king of this dynasty was Hermione. The Indo-Greek dynasty was ended by the Shakvansh.   

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