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QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

Gupta Period Architecture -2

Cave of Nashik: -
  • Bound in the first century. There are 3 Buddhist caves.
  • This cave is also called "Pandavaleni".
  • There is no picture of Lord Buddha here, his position symbol and throne are depicted.
  • It is believed to be the caves of the Hinayana sect.

Mandapeshwar Cave: -
  • This cave was built in the 9th century.
  • This cave is of Brahmin style.
  • These caves were later turned into caves of Christianity.

Stupa: -
  • The construction of stupas was reduced in the Gupta period.

Sculpture: -
  • Sculpture was very developed in Sarnath.
  • Now the idol was found in cream and blue stone and the construction of the metal idol began.

Architecture of temples
  • The arrangement of temples started from Gupta period.
  • The architecture of the temples was developed in five stages.

First step: -
  • The roofs of the temples were flat.
  • There were 3 square shaped temples.
  • Built on a column
  • Low altitude.

Second Stage
  • Construction began on the stage
  • The sanctum sanctorum was covered on all sides
  • The circumference was from the formation of the path.

Third stage: -
  • A mountain-like part was built at the top of the temple.
  • Panchayati style construction started.
  • The temples of four other deities were kept in place of the main deities.
  • The stage is kept wide while the main part is small in height.

Fourth step: -
  • In this phase the construction of rectangles started.

Fifth step: -
  • At this stage the temple began to become rectangular and round.

Highlights of Hindu Temple: -
  • Garbha Griha: - Usually a small room in which the main deity is installed.
  • Mandap: - The entrance of the temple is a place of worship.
  • Peak: - A mountain or pyramid-like part above the roof.
  • Vehicle: - The chief deity has a seat or vehicle. Which is to be held in front of the main deity.


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