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CAUSES OF HARPPAN CIVILIZATION END

QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

Maharshi Panini Part-1

Panini (500 BC) is the greatest grammar of the Sanskrit language. He was born in Gandhara, then North West India. His grammar is called Ashtadhyayi which has eight chapters and about four thousand sutras. Panini's contribution in giving grammatical form to Sanskrit language is considered incomparable. Ashtadhyayi is not just a grammar text. It gives a complete picture of the then Indian society in various ways. Geography, social, economic, educational and political life of that time, philosophical thoughts, food, way of life, etc.

Early life:

 

        Panini was born in a village called Shalatur. This village was a few miles away from the confluence where the Kabul River meets the Indus. It is now called Lahur. According to his place of birth, Panini is also called Shalaturiya. And in Ashtadhyayi he himself has mentioned this name. The Chinese traveler Yuanchwang (7th century) came to Shalatur village while coming from the north-west. Panini's guru's name was Upvarsh, father's name was Panin and mother's name was Dakshi. When Panini grew up, she studied grammar in depth.

Before Panini, there were many teachers of lexicography. After reading his texts and seeing their differences, the idea came to Panini that he should organize grammar. First of all, he took the vocabulary for himself from the literature which had been expanded before Vedic Vedic Samhitas, branches, Brahmans, Aranyakas, Upanishads etc. which he has used in Ashtadhyayi. He collected and studied the material of the second Nirukta and grammar which was already there. Proof of this is also octave In, as is known from the mention of the opinions of Acharyas like Shaktayan, Shakalya, Bhardwaj, Gargya, Senak, Apishli, Ghalab and Sphotayan etc.

Ashtadhyayi has eight chapters and each chapter has four feet. The first and second chapters contain noun and definition formulas and also the regulatory cases of the interrelationship of verbs and noun words in sentences, such as atmanepada-parasmapada-prakarana for verbs, and inflection, samas, etc. for nouns. The third, fourth and fifth chapters have all kinds of suffixes. The third chapter deals with the use of suffixes in metals and the fourth and fifth chapters add suffixes to noun words. The detailed interpretation of the new noun words has been explained.

 

        The meanings which these suffixes express are called instinct in the definition of grammar, like rainbow in rain will be called annual rainbow. The suffix "ek" which expresses this special meaning occurring in rain is a taddhit suffix. There are 1,190 formulas in the given case and 631 in the participle case. Thus 1,821 of Ashtadhyayi i.e. less than half of the formulas have been allocated for the legislation of participles, added suffixes.

Panini had scrutinized the Sanskrit language of his time. Based on this research, the grammar he preached not only became the regulatory scripture of the then Sanskrit language, but it also influenced the later Sanskrit compositions. Even before Panini, other teachers of grammar had tried to bind this vast Sanskrit language in rules, but Panini's scripture proved to be the foremost in all of them in terms of expansion and seriousness.

Seeing the unique grammar that Panini preached with the help of his deep insight, coordinating approach, concentration, skill, hard work and abundant material, the greatest scholars were amazed to say - 'Paniniyan Mahatsuvirchitam' - Panini's scripture is great And well-designed; His vision is very sharp; 'Shobhana Khalu Panine: Sutrasya Kriti:' His composition is very beautiful; 'Paninishabdo loke prakashte' Panini's name has spread all over the world, etc. Commentator Has addressed Panini with the adjectives Pramanbhuta Acharya, Manglik Acharya, Srhrid, Bhagwan etc.

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