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CAUSES OF HARPPAN CIVILIZATION END

QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

Mughal period -Architecture

Give details of the development of Mughal architecture.

or

Give details of the evolution of architecture in the Mughal period.


All Mughal  emperors were lovers of building and architecture. Architecture is also not known as building art, architecture and crafts.  The Mughal emperors built and developed the Mughal style in coordination with the Iranian and Hindu style, the imprint of which was printed on all their arts.

gives. Although   historians like Ferguson say that the style of forest-making art of the Mughals is foreign, it is not correct. "A country with a vast and abnormality and variation like India cannot be said that building art remained stable with a single specific style," Sir John Perschel wrote. Different styles have been sumed at different places.

Development of architecture in mughal period

In short, the development of architecture in the Mughal period has been as follows.

(1)  Architecture of Babar-

Babar considered Indian architecture as good, so he was used by Indians in Agra and Delhi. 

The made-up martas did not like. Babar summoned the artisans from Kustunia for the construction of buildings.  Babar built wells, ponds, fatwas, etc., at Agra, Aligarh, Sikri, Dholpur, Earnest, Gwalior etc. The following two buildings built by Babar are also visible today-

(I) Kabuli Mosque of Panipat, and

(ii) Jama Masjid of Sambhal

These two mosques were built in 1526 AD.  There is no specific specimen in these mosques.

(2) Architecture of Humayun-

Most of Humayun's life was spent in wars and races, so he did not have the time to build buildings. Nevertheless, Humayun built a palace called ' Don-e-Shelter’ in Delhi. Sher Shah Suri may have destroyed it.  Humayun also built mosques in Fatehabad and Agra. An important architectural work is the tomb of Humayun.  Although it was constructed during Akbar's early reign, it is the building of Humayun's time. The tomb is a specimen of a mixture of Iranian and Indian styles. It also has a Persian style of emotion.

(3)  The architecture of Sher Shah-

Sher Shah was very fond of architecture. According to Dr. Legengo, he wanted to build a fort in each city and convert the mud-made sarais into Pucca houses and make them security posts of the state. The old fort of Delhi is built by Sher Shah Suri.  The famous buildings built by Sher Shah Suri also have Sher Shah's tomb. The tomb, built in the middle of the lake at Saharram in Bihar, is an excellent specimen of Hindu-Muslim crafts in terms of its grandeur, beauty and curvyness.  Cunningham has also described it as beautiful from the Taj Mahal.

(4)  Akbar's architecture-

The architecture of the Mughals truly begins with Akbar's reign. Akbar coordinated his architecture and Indian art. All buildings of Akbar's period. Are of stone and marble has been used for decoration.

The buildings or buildings constructed by Akbar are as follows:

(I)  Red Fort of Agra,

(ii) Jahangiri Mahal,

(iii) Akbari Mahal,

(iv) Fort of Lahore,

(v) Fort of Allahabad,

(vi) Diwan-e-Aam,

(vii) Jodhabai Fort,

(viii) Palace of Birbal,

(ix) Panchmahal, it is also in Sikri and a mixture of Hindu-Muslim architecture

(x) Jama Masjid, constructed in 1571 AD. It is the best building of Fatehpuri Sikri from painting.

(xi) Buland Darwaza, built by Akbar after the conquest of Gujarat. Fatehpur is located in Sikri and is superior to mughal carpet doors.

(xii)  Sheikh Salim Chishti's tomb, built in 1571 AD. Its kari is worth watching.

(xiii)  Sikandra, the construction work was started by Akbar, but was completed during the reign of Jahangir in 1623 AD.

Historians have praised the buildings built by Akbar. Th has a story on the unprecedented and stone-marked buildings of Fatehpur Sikri.

(5) Architecture of Jahangir-

Jahangir was fonder of painting, not architecture. The two buildings of his time are prominent

(I)  Tomb of Amidala -

The tomb was built by Noorjahan in 1626 AD in remembrance of his father. It is located in Agra and is made of white marble.

(ii) Jahangir's Tomb -

It was also constructed by Noorjahan. It is located in Shahdara along the Ravi River near Lahore. Marble mosaic has been made at Samadhi.

(6)  The architecture of Shah Jahan-

Shah Jahan was the golden age of the Mughal period in terms of building construction. The buildings built by him have originality, beauty and tenderness. Carving and painting are special in these buildings. The following buildings were constructed during Shah Jahan's period:

(I)  Buildings constructed at The Red Fort in Agra-

Shah Jahan made the red stone buildings in the Red Fort by Akbar and made them marble. These buildings are like

1. Diwan-e-Aam,

2. Diwan-e-Khans,

3. Mosque to Building,

4. Sheesh Mahal and Khas Mahal,

5. Jharokha Darshan and Musumman Turret,

6. Nagina and Moti Masjid

(ii)  Taj Mahal-

The best building built by Shah Jahan is the Taj Mahal of A garre, which he built in remembrance of his beloved Begum Mumtaz Mahal, which is counted in seven wonders of theworld. It happened in 22 years. The building is built in Persian, yet many crafts are of Hindu manner.  Percy Brown has called the Taj Mahal a symbol of the perfection of Mughal architecture. About ₹ 50 lakh was spent in its construction.

(iii)  Red Fort of Delhi-

Shah Jahan built a huge fort in the Yamuna River Kiare in Delhi in 1632 AD. There are two doors. It has crazy-e-special, Diwan-e-Aam and Rangmahal very beautiful.   It is written on the wall of Diwan-e-Khas,"If paradise is the land of the land, Haminst" that is, if there is heaven somewhere onearth, it is here, right here.  

(iv)  Jama Masjid in Delhi-

Shah Jahan built a mosque near the Red Fort in Delhi. It is made of red stone.

(v)  Takht-e-Taus (Peacock Throne) -

Shah Jahan built the throne of peacock's appearance. It was bed-shaped and made of gold. The size was 3-1/2 yards long, 3/4 yards wide and 5 yards high. The whole throne was flaring with gems, but today it is not the throne-e-Taus.

(v) Architecture of Aurangzeb -

Unlike his ancestors, Aurangzeb did not show any love for the arts. He built very few buildings, but none of them is at par with the buildings constructed by his father, Pitamah and Prapitamah.  The only building in Delhi to which Aurangzeb's name relates is the white marble mussind located in the Red Fort. Aurangzeb built the tomb of his beloved Begum Rabiya-Udthuli in 1679 AD at Aurangabad in the south. It is known as the second Taj Mahal.  Even when the Taj Mahal is copied, it is far inferior in design, workmanship and creation. The Badshahi Masjid of Lahore built by Aurangzeb and the mosque of Banaras and Mathura are also noteworthy.

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