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QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

East India Company need to change the old land revenue system in India to a new type of land revenue system

QUESTION:- Why did the East India Company need to change the old land revenue system in India to a new type of land revenue system?  Also, introduce the various ground systems adopted by the company. 


Prior to the arrival of the East India Company, the traditional land revenue system in India had the right of farmers to land and a part of the crop was given to the government. The Treaty of Allahabad in1765gave the company civil rights from Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.  The company, however, continued the old land revenue system but increased the rate of land revenue. That was natural because the company's costs were rising and land revenue was the only medium where the company could get more and more money. Clive and his successor had initially made no major changes to the land revenue system,  but a few years later, the company began to interfere in India's agricultural system with the aim of meeting its costs and maximizing profits and setting up a new type of land revenue system.


The British mainly adopted the following geographical methods in India:

    1. The monopoly system      

    2. Permanent Settlement     

    3. Raiatwadi     

    4. Mahalbari  System

The following are the brief introductions to all these methods:

    1. monopoly System:  

    This  practice was introduced in 1772 by Warren Hastings. The system had two features:

  • It provided for five years of period and
  • The land was given to the highest bidder on the ground.

The system benefited the company but the instability of their recovery   was maintained. In 1777, the karaar was changed to one year instead   of five years. The main drawback of this system was that new    people signed contracts every year and charged  more and more to the farmers.

2. The permanent landholding system 

is also known as the Landholding  System. It was implemented in 1793 by Lord Carnavalis in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa,  Uttar Pradesh and North Karnataka covering about 19% of the total area of  British India. Under this arrangement, the land holders were made permanent owners of land. Their right to land was ancestral and transferable. They would not be separated from the land till they continued to give certain levies to the government. But only the poor status of the rayat was given to the farmers and the land rights were taken away from them.  10/11  of the total land revenue collected from the farmers.    

3. The Ryatwari System: 

The system, which   was introduced in 1820 by then-Governor of Madras, Tomas Munaro, was implemented in parts of Madras,  Mumbai and Assam. In this system, the government contacted the farmers directly. Now,  The Rayat was given land ownership and possession rights and was personally responsible for the government's payment of  land.  

4. Mahalwari system: 

It was implemented by Lord Hastings in The Central Province,  Agra and Punjab. Under this arrangement,    30% of the total area was set up by land revenue management with the land owners a whole village ort he mahal, who jointly claimed to be the head of the whole village or the whole village, based on the production of the entire village. The landlord  or the head of the mahal was taken away from the land of the farmer who did not pay the loan. 


Thus, the company adopted various agricultural systems to collect land revenue in India. The company's basic objective was to collect maximum income of land and not work for the welfare of the farmers. So the Indian agricultural system was gradually damaged and Indian farmers were destroyed.


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