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CAUSES OF HARPPAN CIVILIZATION END

QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

SULTANATE ERA ECONOMY SYSTEM IN INDIA

QUESTION:- Identify key factors that keep the expansion of urban economy in the Delhi Sultanate state?  


Introduction

The arrival of Turks provided an environment conducive to the development of the urban economy, where farmers were liberated from the power of the middlemen and the urban economy was encouraged by additional production.

The growth   in the urban economy led to various industries and crafts which led to the development of industries which paved the way for expansion by promoting the civil economy.


Main Body

With the growth of silk worm, the textile industry developed and the carpet weaving industry was started as a result of paper. Thus, with the establishment of various industries, a class of artisans was formed to work for the promotion of industries.  With these activities, a series of small cities of various types were created.

   The textile industry improved further with the spread of the spinning wheel brought by the Turks. With cotton textile industries, the production of maalwas increased. At that time, the textile of the patola was manufactured in Gujarat and high-quality silk garments were imported from Iran - with which the trade was promoted, big cities were developed and Delhi became the center of the economy in the Sultanate.

Employment opportunities in cities grew in abundance and the migration of rural businesses moved towards cities. The city was a major source of    employment, as the Delhi Sultans built large buildings in the cities. According to Barney, Aladdin had appointed seventy thousand laborers to build their houses.  who were promoting and expanding the urban economy somewhere?

Various Delhi Sultans worked to establish royal factories in cities to expand the economy of cities, to increase employment. Various arts were encouraged to meet the royal   needs of the   royal family and to develop new income sources and produce all the essential items of regular life. Firoz Shah Tughlaq Cat Luck Royal Factory was founded in Which around 12000 slaves were kept.

The Delhi Sultanate promoted internal and foreign trade, with   which the urban economy was expanded. Roads were constructed for commercial development of cities.  By the Tughlaq period, the areas of Devagiri, Telangana and MalBar in the south had been connected to Delhi.  This route encouraged internal trade, which was very important for urban traders who were promoting urban trade.  At the same time, after the Gujarat victory, the sea route encouraged foreign trade.  and further develop   the potential of the urban economy.

    The business class was generally living in cities, promoting and expanding the urban economy, and many business groups were active, including Marwari, Gujarati, Sultani, Hindu and Jain. The currency system was the main role in maintaining the expansion of the urban economy, which encouraged    widespread transactions.  Under the Delhi     Sultans, currency coins were   widely influenced by the printing and regulation, which worked    to measure the exact price of goods that promote urban centralization.  At the same time, the currency provided another permanent and invincible form of property other than land.

During the period of the Sultanate, many cities were developed and the focal points   of ancient rule were cities of their capitals, which can be seen as Golkonda, Ahmedabad, etc.  Some sultans personally encouraged cities that could be named   after Firoz Shah, who established cities like Jaipur, Firozpur, Fatimabad and Firozabad.

Conclusion

Finally, the urban economy expanded by the spread of commercial activities with administrative needs and civic needs. It can be said, therefore, that the urban economy developed by the Sultanate period paves the way for the progress of the Mughal period.

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