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QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu


QUESTION:- The reforms initiated by Alauddin Khilji in various departments. Evaluate the extent to which the reforms have succeeded. 


Alauddin Khilji not only expanded the state but also provided effective governance through his reforms.

The amendments undertaken by Alauddin Khilji in various departments are as follows:

1.     Alauddin Khilji maintained a large permanent army and paid them in cash from the royal treasure.

2.     Strict review was carried out from time to time to ensure maximum efficiency of the army.

3.     The public sale of liquor and drugs and the celebration of social festivals and festivals were banned without the permission of the Sultan.

4.     The introduction of salary to soldiers in cash had given a boost to price regulation, which is known as public market reforms.

5.     Alauddin Khilji set up four different markets in Delhi, the first for food grains. The second was for textiles, sugar, dried  fruits,  butter and oil; the third was for slaves and animals, and the fourth for various things.

6.       Alauddin Khilji was the first Sultan of Delhi to order land measurement. His land revenue reforms provided a basis for future reforms for Shershah and Akbar.

7.       Cash was raised to enable the Sultan to give money to the soldiers.

8.       Alauddin Khilji appointed a jockey and clerk to post posts who were reporting to the Sultan.

9.       Alauddin Khilji set up the police department and the intelligence agencies in a solid manner. He created new posts in the police department and appointed qualified persons. Sultan himself had sent slaves to buy many items to check prices.

The extent of the success of the reform with a pro-opposition reference is described in the following forms:

1.   The officers surveyed the prices carefully and the traders who violated the fixed rates were punished.

2.   The same price was retained even during the famine during the reign of Alauddin Khilji.

3.   Even the landlord could not escape the land tax during the reign of Alauddin Khilji.

4.   Alauddin's postal system was working efficiently and immediately received news of the Sultan's rebellion and war operations.

5.   The success of Alauddin's market has led to whistleblowers like Barid and Muanhas.

6.    One drawback in revenue collection was the incorrect recovery, which often left the amount unrecoverable.

7.    The expansion of khalsa land had increased the number of lower class revenue employees, including most corrupt robbers.

8.     It is not clear whether the market rules of Delhi were in force in provincial capitals and towns.

The reforms made by Alauddin Khilji were an important place in contemporary circumstances. However, there were some  mistakes, which were one of the main reasons for the system's development.



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