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CAUSES OF HARPPAN CIVILIZATION END

QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

CHOLA ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM

QUESTION:- EVALUATE THE CHOLA ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 


INTRODUCTION


The chola period was known as the era of the establishment of political unity in south India, but a large community of scholars were the administrative system and its spectacular features. But historians like Burton gave the analogy of "fragmented state" to the empire. In fact, the Chola kalin regime was a well-organized influence.



MAIN BODY


  1. The king was sitting on the title of chola administration. Which was compared to the deity. In addition, the divine principle of the king was encouraged. The dead kings were also worshipped in the temple.
  2. The empire was divided into provinces in line with a well-organized administrative system. Which was called "Mandalam". The number of provinces was probably 8 or 9. Each mandalam was divided into many kottams (velanadu) and kottam was divided into many small nandas. Each of the tubes had several gra sanghas. Which was called Kuroch and Tar-Kuroch.
  3. Thus, the departments of administration were completely hierarchy. The president of Mandalam was usually from a royal family. In addition, the chola administration had a large group of officers and a powerful bureaucraticsystem, administrative order, which was generally called The Serundaram of The Perudaram and the Lower Officers. The appointment of officers was a fair balance between the birth race and the merits. The Central Administrative Department was the central administrative department. There was a good rapport between them and administrative inscriptions were regularly maintained. 
  4. In the Chola period, the revenue administration was in order. The land was measured. And the taxable land was distributed in a fixed category. Generally, multi-revenue was 1/2 of total production. Many other types of taxes were levied, including business tax, house tax, festive tax, etc. In chola period, the judicial system was also established in an organized manner up to the Central Court.
  5. The above fact represents the advanced governance system of any empire.
  6. In the Chola period, local autonomous institutions likeYour, Sabha and Nagaram were formed. At the lower level, power was subject to these institutions.
  7. An organization called Your used to function in the village which included all the taxpayers of the village. 
  8. An organization called Nagaram worked as a mediator between rural areas and towns. Ur and Sabha edited their works in an organization called The Meeting.
  9. In the above written institutions, members were often appointed by lottery system.
  10. Samanta was appointed by the kings to regulate the above institution. There is also evidence that these feudal and rural officials enjoyed unfettered powers. 


CONCLUSION


Together, the success of autonomous governance in this time provides a great example of the Chola governance system. The Indian Constitution introduced a panchayati raj system which can also be inferred to be influenced by chola.

 

 


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