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CAUSES OF HARPPAN CIVILIZATION END

QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

CHOLA EMPIRE

QUESTION:- Make a critical assessment of the cholas in the history of South India?


INTRODUCTION


A.D.  The Chola state, established by 850 Vijayalayas, immediately established dominance over its neighbouring states and took the form of a major empire. This empire subjected the entire part of the Southern Island group to itself. In the middle of the 11th centenary, the Chola Empire was at its peak in terms of power and prestige. This time is considered to be the golden age of South India. The Chola rulers not only gave strong and stable governance but also provided a rich survey of art and literature. During this time, South India developed all round.    

With the arrival of the Cholas, countless small states in eastern South India were fighting each other to survive. But the shape of this state remainedsmall, yet every effort was made by them to promote prosperity.

 


    MAIN BODY


  • The arrival of Chola led to political unity for the first time in South India. Cholas conquered all these mini kingdoms and brought them under the control of their dominant empire. This led to the political integration of South India. In addition, chola made all out efforts to develop these small states.
  • In the Chola period, the administration took care of the wishes and expectations of the people at every level and also represented them in the administrative system. But all the supreme powers and powers were in the hands of the king so that the centralized system of governance could be called.  
  • Cholas encouraged local self-governance at the village level. In which he did not enter unnecessarily. The governance of the village was governed by the Mahasabha. Each village was divided into 30 sections. People living in every department preferred their representatives. This elected member was participating in the Mahasabha.
  • The Mahasabha was the owner of public land and was also working for revenue, irrigation, justice, roads, lakes, donations, religion and temples.
  • The Chola rulers were not autocratic, though they were the masters of an extended empire. He considered public welfare as his rajdharma. The Chola rulers also included yuvraj in their governance.  
  • The Chola rulers had the best navy, which led them to invade and assert their power over south-east Asian countries. Therefore, chola ruled south India from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal, in which he also developed a wafer and commerce facility.
  • Land revenue was the main source of income of the Chola empire. They were taking 1/2 of the produce. The highway was safe and saw the progress of trade and industry. Canals and ponds were constructed for irrigation.
  • The Chola kalin samaj was based on caste system. Despite living different castes, life here was cooperative. The condition of the women was good. There were examples of anulome and pratilom marriage. Women participated in social and religious activities. The custom of the Sati system existed.    
  • The custom of polygamy and the practice of devadasi were visible.
  • The Cholas were Shaiva saivas and supporters of Vaishnava religion. The Chola rulers cultivated a sense of all-religion equality. During this period, many temples were built and the temple became a work of public service.
  • Chola time is considered to be the golden age of Tamil literature. Mainly poetry was composed in which many texts were composed by scholars like Dandi.
  • The Chola rulers had an unparalleled interest in art. For example, the temples built during thisperiod, including the famous Brihadeshwartemple in its capital, were very famous bronze idols, in which the statue of Nataraj became very famous. 


CONCLUSION


On the basis of the above criticism, it can be concluded that during the Chola regime, life progressed the most in every field. All this was made possible by political integration and the policy of power and tolerance of the Chola kings.

 


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