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CAUSES OF HARPPAN CIVILIZATION END

QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

FALL OF MUGHAL EMPIRE

QUESTION. Explain the reasons for the fall of the Mughal Empire. How far was Aurangzeb responsible forthe fall of the MughalEmpire?  Or  Aurangzeb destroyed the empire before his death. Explain this statement.    Or   Explain the reasons for the fall of the Mughals.



The Mughal Empire was founded in 1526 AD by Babur in north India.  Babar's descendants then expanded and organized the Mughal Empire through theirheroism,  courage, ability and diplomacy.  The country developed during the reigns ofAkbar, Jahangir and ShahJahan, but in AD.  After Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the empire collapsed and soon collapsed.

Aurangzeb's responsibility was as follows:


Aurangzeb's government policy -

Aurangzeb's personal character and governance policy can be attributed mainly to the collapse of the Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb was a staunch Sunni Muslim.

During hisreign, he committed various atrocities on ShiaMuslims,  Hindus, Sikhs and other religions.  

The sons of Rajput king Jaswant Singh tried to make him a Muslim. His radical religious policy led the Hindus ofIndia,  especially Jats,  Marathas and Rajputs, to rebel against them, determined to end the Mughal rule, which shook the foundations of a strong and united Mughal rule.


Aurangzeb's Southern Policy-

The Marathas in the south got an opportunity to increase their influence and organize.

If Aurangzeb had adopted a policy of cooperation with the rulers of Bijapur and Golkunda, these states would have helped Aurangzeb destroy the power of the Marathas in the south.

Thus Aurangzeb's governance policy had an adverse impact on the power and organization of the Mughal Empire, which led to the collapse of the Mughal Empire day by day.


Ineligible successor-

The capacity of the successors was necessary to prevent the chaos and chaos that arose during Aurangzeb's reign.

In that situation, a worthy and visionary emperor like Akbar could have been controlled. But unfortunately Aurangzeb's successor lacked such administrative capacity and capacity. As a result, the power of the Mughal Empire faded and one day it was destroyed.


Economic weakness-

The government exchequer remained empty due to the imperialist policy of the Mughal emperors. During Aurangzeb's reign, the economic crisis deepened when he wasted huge money in the victory campaign of the southern states.

After Aurangzeb'sdeath, his successor did not take any concrete steps to enrichthe royaltreasure, but his luxurious and spending habit made the economic problem more complicated.


Military dislocation and indiscipline-

After Aurangzeb's rule, the military organization eased. His successor himself was ineligible. He would not have taken any notice of the arrangements and discipline of the soldiers.

The Mughal soldiers were very weakened with the use of alcohol and other narcotics. Moral and physical force came to an end.

The practice of mansabdari performed by Akbar was a lot of shortcomings. Big zamindars and soldiers were given the post of mansabdars in the army. It was natural for these mansadars to create laziness and weakness among the soldiers due to lack of military skills and organizational capacity.

Gradually, discipline also increased. It was no surprise if the foreignarmy was skilled in conducting wars with well-organized and skilled generals. 


Aurangzeb's policy towards Rajputs -

Before Aurangzeb, Akbar and others understood the qualities of the Character of the Rajputs and made them friends, which helped to make the empire powerful and permanent. But Aurangzeb had ignored india's most powerful Rajput caste because of his religion, which resulted in the Rajputs becoming enemies of the Mughals.


(10) Alien Invasion-

Two major attacks on India during the Mughal rule were carried out by AhmadShah Abdali and Nadir Shah. They massacred here and looted a lot of property. In addition, traders from many European countries affected by India's prosperity built their bases here. The British East India Company played an effective role in the fall of the Mughal Empire.  After the Plassey War of 1757, the company of East India took over the reins of this country.

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