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QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT

QUESTION:-  Write an essay on the Quit India Movement.                                                                                        Or   What were the reasons for starting the Quit India Movement? Describe the progress, programmers and achievements of the movement.                                                                      Or Explain in detail the Quit India movement of 1942 and give it importance in India's freedom movement.                                                                      Or   Describe the circumstances of the Quit India Movement (1942) and explain the reasons for its failure. The failure of the Cripps mission caused a lot of disappointment among Indians. So Gandhiji started thinking seriously about the problems of the country. He concludedthat the real solution to Indian problems could be only when the British left India. He wrote in his newspaper Harijan that the British Government had been warned. "Leave India in god's trust.

MUGHAL ADMINISTRATION

QUESTION. 

Discuss the nature of mughal state system and governance. 

                                                    Or  

"Describe in detail the governance of the Mughals. 

                                                    Or 

explain the central and provincial governance of the Mughals. 

ANSWER  

Central governance of the Mughals

The central governance of the Mughals was as follows:

(1) Emperor -

The emperor was the centre of governance  and all the power of governance was completely concentrated in it. His power was unlimited, he was not controlled by any institution. In a sense, his power was unlimited,  but his orders were not entirely honourable in remote areas. Their power was not considered in the hilly regions. The Mughal emperor swayamshakta and autocratic ruler. But the first six Mughal emperors were an unjust and tyrannical

He did not rule as a dictator and he did not suppress the rights of the people. These emperors had a sufficient tendency of arbitrary liberalrulers, as was found in the rulers of Europe at this time. Like him, he paid adequate attention to the upliftment of the people' s position, though it remained confined to the capital or provincial capitals. They also had full control over mullahs and clerics. He was not under the control of any other power, so he was a sovereign emperor. The only fear of rebellion was a ban on them. They considered themselves tobe representatives of God or theirshadow,  which also led to their right to religion. Apart from being the head of the empire, he was also the commander-in-chief of the army and the main source of the judicial system. Thus, he had a right over the entire government. The Mughal emperors had to perform both duties. On the one hand, like a king, he had to rule all the people of his kingdom, work as a representative of the other community and religion and a protector of religion. 

(2) Council of Ministers-

There was also a council of ministers inthe Mughalrule,  but it was not the same as the council of ministers today. The prime minister's post was higher than that of other ministers. Often the emperor consulted him on serious questions, but whether he spoke or not depended on the emperor's personal will. The post of other ministers was smaller than that of the Prime Minister. In fact, the other Minister was theSecretary, who had a department under his control. The Prime Minister could have reviewed his actions. The Council did not determine the State policy. Its main function was to advise the emperor. They were responsible for that. They held their positions only as long as they were his gracious ones. In fact, the worthy talented emperor himself was his Prime Minister and he was the one who determined the policy of the kingdom. 

(3) Various Departments of Governance  –

From Babur  to Akbar, there were four departments of governance. During Aurangzeb's reign, the number  was reduced to  6 and later the number was fixed at 8.  These departments were as follows

(i) Diwan or Prime Minister  -

Diwan's position was the best in government services. It was occupied by the Fund Department. Generally, it was a civilian officer and he was given very little military work. He served as an intermediary between the emperor and other ministers. In the absence of the emperor, he replaced him. He used to have letters on all income expenditure and war letters. He had the right to be allowed to spend all kinds of expenses. Generally, the emperor used to ask him. During the time of the unqualified rulers, his position became very important and the entire burden of governance remained on him. He had two officials under neathhim,  one  calledDiwan-e-Khasand the other  asDiwan-e-Aam.   

(ii) Khan-e-Saman or Mir-e-Saman-  

There was a Government Home System Department under Khan-e-Saaj or Mir-e-Saaj.    He was related to the emperor's household items. All the servants of the emperor, etc., were under its control. He was always with the Emperor and fulfilled his needs. He also tested the daily life of the emperor etc. 

(ii) Mir Bakshi-

Under Mir Bakshi, there was a department of salary and income expenditure of the soldiers. He used to appoint mansabs and inspect and distribute their salaries. He used to recruit soldiers in the army. He had a register in which the number of soldiers under the mansabdars was written. 

(iv) Kaziul-

Kujat (Pradhan Kazi) was the head of the Kaziul-Kujat Justice Department. Hewas the Chief Kazi(Judge)and his court was the largest court. He used to put up kachari every Wednesday. He had control over other tasks. He also used to appoint them. He also had the right to retire him from office. He used to decide according to Muslim law (Shariah). There were many kaji underhim,  whose appeals against his decision he used to hear. In everyprovince,  district and city, Kazi listened to the cases. They used to misuse their rights. Their rights were detailed. There was enough corruption in the Justice Department at that time. 

(v) Sadr-us-Sadr-  

There was a department of religious wealth determination and dental under Sadr-us-Sadr. His main function was to distribute money to qualified religious persons and institutions. He used to give estates to mullahs etc.  sadr in each province, was appointed by Sadr-us-Sadr.  This post was very profitable and these people lived in malamala. 

(vi) Muhtasib-

Under Muhtasib, there was a public ethics inspection department. He upgraded the morality of the people according to Muslim law and drew his attention to removing their faults. He punished Muslims who had views against Islam or distrusted the Prophet and did not pray or fast for five times. During Aurangzeb's reign, its main function was to demolish the temples of the Hindus.

(vii) Mir-e-Atish  -

There was a artillery department under Mir-e-Atish and it was the responsibility of him to run the department smoothly. He had all the guns and guns in his possession.

(viii) Dagar-e-Dak-  

The post was the News and Posts Department under the post office. It was occupied by newswriters,  spies and communicators. They were appointed all over the State. Horses lived at the post office to carry mail and information. It was through this that the emperor used to get information about the entire empire. 

(II) Provincial Governance of the Mughals

The provincial system of governance of the Mughals was as follows

(1) Province  -

For proper governance of the empire, the Mughals divided the entire empire intoprovinces, otherwise it was impossible to rule such a vast empire. After the end of the feudal system, Akbar's entire empire was divided into 15  subas (provinces). At the time of Jahangir,the  entire empire was divided into 17  subas (provinces),  22 subas (provinces) during Shah Jahan's time and 21 subas (provinces) at aurangzeb's  time. The province had the following officials

(i) Subedar-

The chief officer of each province was called Subedar. In Akbar's time he  was referredto asSiphasalar,but  in the time of his successors he was called 'Subedar'.    Its. The appointment was made by the Emperor himself. Most of the time, members of the royal family or those associated with it were appointed or appointed as qualified generals. The main reason for this was that this post was considered very important and glorious. He was responsible to the emperor for all his actions. He was the head of provincial rule as well as the commander of the province's army. He also had the right to fight or close and enter into a treaty without obtaining the emperor's approval. He used to hear appeals against the decisions of Kazi and Mir Adil. He had full responsibility for the peace and order of the province. He used to help the employees of the entire department to collect the goods. He had to inform the emperor from time to time about all the important information of the province. He had no right in the religious field. He also had to suppress the rebel zamindars. 

(ii) Diwan-

Diwan was the second important officer of the province. He was a rival to the subedar. Both of them looked at each other with jealousy and both of them. They looked at each other's actions critically and suspiciously. He was appointed by the Central Government and he was only responsible to him. His main function was to make proper arrangements for revenue in the province. In case subedar and Diwan differed on any subject, it was decided by the Central Government. He had to strive for the advancement of agriculture. He also decided on the cases relating to lagaan.

(iii) Sadr-

The third office bearer of the province was called Sadr. It was appointed by the Central Government. Only a high quality scholar and a person of high quality was appointed to this post. Many Mir Adils worked under him.

(iv) Amil-

The fourth office bearer of the province was called Amil. It was appointed by the Central Government. He had to maintain peace in the province and suppress thieves and bandits.

(v) Bakshi  -

The fifth office bearer of the province was called Bakshi,  who was appointed by the Central Government. His main functionwas to recruit in theArmy,  to make proper arrangements forthearmy,  to have military organizations, etc. 

(vi) Wakia-e-Navis-

He was the head of the state's intelligence division. It used to send information about the works of Subedar and Diwan to the Central Government.

(vii) Kotwal-

Kotwal used to take care ofpeace,  security,  cleanliness and commuters in the capital and big cities of the state. He was a military officer and had enough soldiers under his control. 

(2) Government or District-

Each province was divided into governments (districts). The largest official of the government was called faujdar. It served as the representative of the Emperor of theGovernment, but he had to act in the discipline of the Subedar as per his orders. He was appointed by the Emperor himself. It used to be of high quality manasbadar. His main task was to establish peace and order in the district. Itmaintained direct contact with thepeople,  zamindars, etc. He was controlled by a small army with the help of which he controlled thieves and bandits and suppressed small rebellions. In addition, there was a mill inthe Governmentwhose job was to recover the tax. There was also a Kotwal in the major cities whose job was to maintain peace and order in the city. 

(3) Parganas-

Each 'government'(district)was divided into parganas. Each *pargana consistedof onevictim,  one amil and one cashier and some other employees. 

(4)  Nagar-

There used to be a kotwal for the management of the city. He was appointed by the Central Government. He was the head of the city police and he used to do all the work that the municipality and the police do together in modern times. Kotwal used to appoint various officers to help him. He also had a skilled military contingent under his control. Thus, we see that the Mughal regime was very good and the Emperor controlled the Central government as well as the provincial rulers completely. Akbar said, "A king should be just, fair,  generous,  hardworking and patron and well-wisher of his subjects. Immorality and oppression are unfair to the emperor. Aurangzeb was also aware of his duty. He also considered the kingship to be godly responsibilities. That is why the Mughal emperor    was aliberal autocratic rulerwho took care of the good of his subjects. 


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