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QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu


QUESTION:- "After the mughal rule, the war between the British and the Marathas was a struggle to prove the best for each other. In which the British won. "In this background, analyse the reasons for the defeat of the Marathas in the Anglo-Maratha war.


In the 18th century, the Maratha Empire was strengthened on the ruins of the Mughal Empire. In the same circumstances, the English Company (East India Company) also started to set its feet as a powerful organization. Now the issue between these two powers was to increase their own rights, dominate the region and prove themselves superior.


  1. This conflict of interest resulted in three Anglo-Maratha wars. The first was the Anglo-Maratha war between the British and the Marathas from 1775-82, the second from 1803-06 and the third in 1817-18. 
  2. The Marathas were more powerful than the Mughals at thattime, yet the British were far behind in the military system and equipment. As a result, the Marathas were defeated by the British. The main reasons for the defeat of the Marathas were as follows:
  3. The Marathas completely lacked good leadership. Leaders like Mahadji Scindia, Ahiyabai Holkar, Peshwa Madhavrao and Nana Fadnavis settled from the world between 1790 and 1800. 
  4. The unity of the people of the Maratha state was artificial and accidental. The Maratha rulers did not make any effort at any time for community development, spreading knowledge or integration of people. 
  5. The economic policy of the Marathas was not helpful in political stability. The Maratha Empire was based not on the resources of Maharashtra but on the money collected forcibly (loot, chauth, sardeshmukhi, etc.).  As a result, the economy collapsed due to repeated wars.
  6. There was no political mutual cooperation among the Marathas. Holkar, Scindia and Bhonsle were all fighting among themselves and the British took advantage of their division. 
  7. The Marathas were no less than personalheroics, yet their military system was far behind the British military organization, arms, discipline and leadership. The Marathas did not adopt the scientific and modern method of war nor did they create good and vague artillery. 
  8. Before the war, he often made different friends and isolated the enemy - not even adopting a better intelligence system and a progressive approach system.


Thus, due to its internal and external weaknesses, the Marathas suffered from their strong and disciplined organization and the Maratha Empire was dominated by the company.



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