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CAUSES OF HARPPAN CIVILIZATION END

QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

Harappa Civilization Or Sindhu Civilization-

According to archeology, the whole civilization is named after the first discovered site. So if Harappa was discovered in the first place, then the whole civilization got the name Harappan civilization.
This civilization is also called the Indus Valley Civilization as it is found on the banks of the river Indus and its watershed.
The period of this civilization is BC. 2650 BC 1750 is considered.
Any fossils found, such as skeletal or tree remains, are usually taken to a laboratory for information on the time of civilization. Radio dating method is used. In which an element called C14 of carbon is taken.
This civilization is contemporary with the civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia and China.
There are about 1000 places of this civilization. It is believed that there will be more than 100 places in India and Gujarat. Accordingly, Gujarat has the highest number of Indus civilizations in India.
So far only 2800 sites of this civilization have been discovered which is believed to be about 3%.
This civilization is spread in the north-western part of India. Considered to be the largest civilization in the world in terms of area. About 12,96,600 lakh sq. Km. Spreading Civilization.
The shape of this civilization is considered to be triangular or triangle or radius.
The northernmost point of this civilization is Manda
The southernmost point of this civilization is Daimabad
The easternmost point of this civilization is Alamgir
The westernmost point of this civilization is Suktagandor
This civilization belongs to the people of the Copper Age. Which is believed to date from 6000 BC.
There were mainly five types of people living here
1. Central Asian 2. Mongol 3. Proto-Australian 4. Alpine 5. Dravidian
Iron, horses, cows and weapons, saw wheels and chariots are not found in the Indus Valley Civilization.
                     Beginning of Civilization: -
It can be classified into three parts according to the order of development of the Harappan civilization.
Early Harappa: - Civilization which dates back to BC. 3300 BC 2600 which started the development of culture on the banks of the river Ravi. Places like Kotdiji, Nausharo and Mehrgarh developed.
 
Medieval Harappa: - Civilization which dates back to BC. The Harappan civilization is believed to have fully developed from 2600 to 1900 BC. Besides, other places are also believed to have emerged on the banks of the river Indus.
 
Final Harappa: - Civilization whose period is BC. From 1900 to 1700 BC, in the Harappan civilization, colorful and polished utensils, paki brick houses etc. are found. This time means that B.C. The Harappan civilization is believed to have ended around 1700. The main reasons behind the end of the Harappan civilization are river floods or a major earthquake and another reason is believed to be the post-Harappan period in which people left the towns and started living in the villages.
         Exploration and excavation of civilization: -
In the beginning when we asked the elders how long have we people been living in India? Then they had an answer that we have been living here since Vedic times. Their answer was reasonable because they were unaware of the Harappan civilization.
But in 1856, while two British engineers, John and William Brunton, were laying the railway line from Karachi to Lahore, they found the bricks of a civilized house, so to speak.
The Harappan Civilization was first proclaimed by Alexander Cunningham during 1872-75. Cunningham is thus considered the father of the Indian Archaeological Department.
Then in 1921 Dayaram Shahani excavated the Harappan site in which he succeeded.
Indus Valley Civilization, Rivers and Inventors. 
 Manda: -
River- Chenab
District- State- Akhnur- Kashmir
Remains - Timber was traded.

Harappa: -
River- Ravi
District- State- Montgomery- Crop
Inventor- Dayaram Sahani
Year- 1921
Remains - barn town - 6 barn found, abundant barley remains, town of chief ruler
City spread over 150 hectares

Mohenjo-daro (Hill of the Dead):
River- Indus
District- State- Larkana- Crops
Inventor: - Rakhaldas Banerjee
Year- 1922
Remains - famous baths (11.88 m wide x 7.01 m long x 2.43 m deep), statue of a priest, Cassani dancer (4 inches), largest city of Indus Valley Civilization, sewn cloth,
A city spread over 500 hectares


Chanhuddo: -
River- Indus
District- State- Sindh- Pak
Inventor- n. G. Majumdar
Remains - Bead Factory, Dog and Cat Remains


Rakhigadhi: -
River: - Sutlej
District- State- Fatehnagar- Haryana
Inventor- Ravindra Singh Bisht
Year- 1973
Remains - Largest brick building found in India
City spread over 250 hectares


Ropad: -
River- Saraswati
District-State-Ropad-Punjab
Inventor- Yagnadat Sharma
Year- 1953-54


Kalibangan: -
River- Saraswati
District- State- Hanumangarh- Rajasthan
Inventor- B.B. Pal and B. K. Thapar
Year- 1953
Remains - farms, farm implements, camels were cultivated, quantity of copper, fire pits, altars, camel remains, black bungalows


Dholavira: -
River- Luni
District- State- Kutch- Gujarat
Inventor- Ravindra Singh Bisht
Year- 1990-91
Remains - Modern town, stadium, signboard, artificial reservoir, largest site in Gujarat
A city spread over 50 hectares


Rangpur: -
River- Bhadar
District- State- Surendranagar- Gujarat
Inventor- Madho Swarup Vats and S.R. Rao
Year- 1953-54
Remains - Raw brick houses, pottery, paddy husks, the first place discovered in Gujarat


Lothal (hill of the dead / hill of corpses): -
River- Bhogavo and Sabarmati
District- State- Ahmedabad- Gujarat
Inventor- S.R. Rao
Year- 1955-62
Remains - twin-grave, artificial-push, fireplace, altar, chess, rainwater disposal, compass, bell ring, toy.


Sutkagandor: -
River-Dashk
District- State- Makran- Pakistan
Inventors - Origin Style and George Dales
Year- 1927-62
Remains - port for foreign trade, relics of horses


Town and building design: -
The town formation of each place was a summons. The three-tiered building structure was seen. Only in Dholavira was a three-tiered town formed.
There was always a fort built and the ruler's house on this fort while the lower level of the fort was the house of a common citizen. To the east lived the house of the common man and to the west lived the house of the ruler. This type of town formation is called "grid system".
The ruler's house had 2 to 5 rooms while the common man's house had 1 to 2 rooms. The structure of a two-story building can be seen.
The town roads were 40 feet wide and intersected at right angles. Roads were being cleared automatically due to the breeze.
Pits were found parallel to both sides of the road so it is believed to be a streetlight.
The doors of the building were always tucked inside. The houses had bathrooms and sewers. The stone was used to cover the gutter. Wells, pantries, terraces, kitchens were found in the houses of the rulers.
The doors of the building always opened to the east.
 
Economic status: -
The people here do not do agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing, sculpture.
They used wheat and barley for food in agriculture. Also rye, peas, sesame, mustard.
The cultivation of cotton was mainly. Cotton farming is a gift of Indus civilization to the world.
Honey was used for dessert.
In animal husbandry they raised sheep, goats, buffaloes, donkeys, camels, chickens, cats and dogs.
Shell inscriptions and sculptures were carved out of Materakota stone.
In addition to copper statues, artisans also made copper weapons such as axes, saws, chappas and spears.
The ivory carving, agate industry developed.
"Bat" weights were found which worked in multiples of 16 such as, 16, 64, 160, 320. In addition, there was the practice of barter.
The art of shipbuilding also developed.
 
Social status: -
According to one estimate from the numerous idols found of women, this society had a female minister.
The society consisted mainly of priests, artisans, peasants and merchants. If the main class artisan.
Both men and women wore cotton and wool. Kept long hair. And also wore ornaments.
The utensils of the Harappan members initially used black clay and later red clay. These vessels depict trees, circles and men.
They used three-wheeled and four-wheeled bullock carts for transportation.
For fun they hunt, fish, fight animals and play dice.
Prostitution and prostitution were prevalent.
 
Religious status: -
Worshiped nature and worshiped the pipal tree.
According to an idol, a tree came out of a woman's womb and was worshiped. So according to that the woman is supposed to be Mother Earth.
It is believed that the bath at Mohenjo-daro was used for religious purposes.
An idol of Lord Pashupatinath is said to have been found sitting in a yoga posture and wearing a crown with one horn and the animals next to it were a rhino, a tiger, an elephant, a buffalo and two deer at its feet.
Yagnakunds and fire altars were found, according to which yagnas were performed here.
There were different customs in different areas. This was given as cremation to bury the deceased. Believed in rebirth.
The script with 400 pictures has not been solved yet but it proves that they will be educated in Thai. The script was written from left to right.   

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