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CAUSES OF HARPPAN CIVILIZATION END

QUESTION: - Give information about the end of the Indus culture or the Harappan culture. The developed Harappan culture generally existed between 2500 BC and 1900, it can be believed that Harappan had a uniform lifestyle in its entire typography, but the uniformview began to change over time. By the 19th century BC, two important cities of Harrapan culture had disappeared. Causes of collapse No specific reasons for the decline of this culture have been ascertained.     Change in the environment can be an   important   reason. In the Harappan region, both the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers had moved away from the Saraswathi around 1700 BC, so the reduction in water supply could be considered as one of the reasons, and at the same time the rains would have decreased. The failure of humanactivities, such as the dam on the Indus, led to natural imbalances and floods that caused destruction. Problem in contact with art-business with    other cultures.   Around2000 BC, a powerfu

Mauryan Empire Part-1

An empire that has a lot to hear about, but nothing to see. The Morya dynasty may be called the first dynasty of India. Because the real history of India comes from the Morya dynasty. We do not have any information about what happened in India before the Mauryan dynasty. We have to rely on foreign writers. Such as Herodotus, the father of history. The book of Herodotus describes the invasion of India by Iran.
So let's talk about Moryavansh, where did the information about Moryavansh coming from in India come from? Or what is the proof of Moryavansh on India? The answer to this question is to look at the source of information of the Moryavansh. Sources of information can be found in the palaces of the Morya dynasty, literature, stories, plays, relics found by the Archaeological Department, etc.
If we look at the architecture of the Moryavansh, the inscriptions, inscriptions, column inscriptions, stupas and caves of Barobar built by Ashoka can only be seen at present. Morya-era palaces are not seen at present, due to the fact that these palaces were made of wood which was destroyed over time. The Iranian invasion of India led to the introduction of Iranian architecture in India and the Moryavans were influenced by this style. So that the architecture of the Morya dynasty is the most Iranian-style.

Important Inscriptions of Ashoka: -

Dholi is located in the entire district of Orissa
Shahbaz Gadhi - Peshawar, Pakistan
Mansehra - In the Hazara district of Pakistan
Kalsi- In Dehradun district of Uttarakhand
Zogarh- In Zogarh district of Orissa
Sopara- Palghar in Maharashtra
Eragudi- In Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh
Girnar - In Junagadh district of Gujarat

Topics of 14 inscriptions of Ashoka: -

Inscription-1: - Animal sacrifice has been banned.
Inscription-2: - Social welfare and human and veterinary medicine are described.
Inscription-3: - Regional, Rajuk and Yukto were sent to different places every 5 years for the purpose of propagating the religion. In addition, saving, religious rules and less waste are the same as following religion.
Inscription-4: - Leaving the policies of war, Ashoka adopted the policy of religion.
Inscription-5: - Dharma Mahamatras were appointed. (Women were also appointed as Dharma Mahamatra.
Inscription-6: - Information about self control is given.
Inscriptions-7 and 8: - Information has been given about the pilgrimage made by Ashoka. The inscription 7 is the longest in the text.
Inscription-9: - Information about etiquette has been given.
Inscription-10: - To think that kings and officials do not always do public welfare.
Inscription-11: - Religion has been defined.
Inscription-12: - Religious Tolerance and Appointment of Female Mahamatra.
Inscription-13: - The battle of Kalinga is described. Also, information about Ashok's change of heart is found.
Inscription-14: - Inspires people to live a religious life.
The source of information on the Moryavansh is found in most of the books written at that time. Books of this period including Arthashastra written by Kautilya, Indica written by Ambassador Megasthenes and Mudrarakshas by Visakhadatta in the Gupta dynasty.

Economics: -

Economics composed by Kautilya was formed in the fourth century BC. In which monarchy, agriculture, justice, social system, theology and political system are mentioned. Compiled by Kautilya, the book was divided into 15 parts. But currently only 3 parts of this book are available.

Indica: -

This book is considered to be a supplementary book on economics. Indica was written in 7 parts. In which information of town, army and governance system of Morya state is received. The Indica of Megasthenes contains special information about the city of Pataliputra. Which Megasthenes calls "polybrotha". Polybrotha means gate town. According to Indica, Patliputra had a total of 64 gates. In addition, the city was surrounded by wooden fences.

Mudrarakshas: -

The book was written by Vishakhadatta in the Gupta dynasty in the fourth century. In which the information of Chandraguptamorya is received. In which his coronation mentions his war and Chanakya policies. Originally this text was written in Sanskrit language. But it was translated into Hindi by Bhartendu Harishchandra in the 18th century which made the book very famous.   

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